Tag Archives: Deborah Jones

Canada’s National Aboriginal Day

DEBORAH JONES: FREE RANGE
June 21, 2016

It’s fitting that today, on Canada’s 20th National Aboriginal Day, Historica Canada released a new Heritage Minute video about the death of a young man.

It tells the story of Chanie “Charlie” Wenjack.  Historica Canada, the non-profit organization that produces Heritage Minutes, noted that his death sparked the first inquest into the treatment of Indigenous children in Canadian residential schools.

The greatest stain on Canada is that for 100 years the state not merely sanctioned but often sent police to seize aboriginal children from their families, then imprisoned them in residential schools run by religious and state institutions.

Some children were sent by willing families, some received valuable educations, some benefitted. But it’s well-documented how many of those children were sexually, physically, and mentally abused, and/or neglected — often to the point of murder. It’s well documented that many never made it home at all, and how few of the survivors came home intact.

It’s a horror spelled “GENOCIDE” that Canadians and Canadian institutions did their best, with few exceptions, from almost the first contact with European peoples, to wipe out not only aboriginal culture but entire peoples.

And it’s an incalculable loss that as a modern country took shape in a globalized world, the knowledge and culture of aboriginal Canadians was ignored, often suppressed; that the leadership potential of aboriginal women and men was squandered.

Is it possible that Canada is now turning a corner?

While protesting that they were not fully included in government meetings, First Nations were at the table before a rare First Minister's meeting March 2, 2016, in Vancouver. Above, President Natan Obed of the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Métis National Council President Clément Chartier, and Assembly of First Nations National Chief Perry Bellegarde. © Deborah Jones 2016

President Natan Obed of the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Métis National Council President Clément Chartier, and Assembly of First Nations National Chief Perry Bellegarde, in Vancouver prior to a First Minister’s government conference. © Deborah Jones 2016

Can we call this progress? While protesting that they were not fully included in government meetings, First Nations were at the table before a rare First Minister’s meeting in March, in Vancouver. They were not full partners, but their voice was loud and clear.

Is the existence of a day for aboriginals progress?

Here’s what is new, to me as a Canadian born to immigrant parents, who as a teen attended a public school in the NorthWest Territories with a large aboriginal residential school population: instead of being ignored, downplayed, sneered at or frowned upon by most of the public, it’s now possible for Canada to hold a National Aboriginal Day that is a coast-to-coast celebration of aboriginal culture and of the accomplishments in all realms of aboriginal Canadians.

Anecdotally I observe that First Nations — legally called Metis, Inuit and Indian — are increasingly accepted and sometimes celebrated by non-aboriginal Canadians as fellow citizens, with unique status, in Canada’s multicultural fabric. An example: when the new federal cabinet was sworn in in 2015, First Nations culture prominently featured in music and dance.

Some of this acceptance has been forced on the country: over decades, decisions by courts at all levels upheld numerous aboriginal rights and land claims, such as the 2014  Tsilhqot’in Nation v. British Columbia ruling by the Supreme Court of Canada.

Progress is a tricky concept, and there’s a long and harrowing road to reach normalcy, let alone some version of redemption. The damage runs deep.

Each Valntine's Day the Women's Memorial March is held in Canadian communities. It began in the early 90s in Vancouver's Downtown East Side to honour, remember and protest the scores of women who have gone missing from the area. © Deborah Jones 2016

Each Valentine’s Day the Women’s Memorial March is held in Canadian communities. It began in the early 90s in Vancouver’s Downtown East Side to honour, remember and protest the scores of women who have gone missing from the area, including the victims of serial killer and pig farmer Robert Pickton. Above, marchers in Vancouver on Feb. 14, 2016. © Deborah Jones 2016

A two-year federal national inquiry is slowly getting underway into missing and murdered  aboriginal women in Canada  — some 1,200 women and girls, estimated a 2014 Royal Canadian Mounted Police report; fully 4,000, says the Native Women’s Association of Canada. Meanwhile, plenty of people protest that aboriginal men, too, have gone missing or been murdered, in unknown numbers but which are certainly greater than for non-aboriginal men.

Statistically, the picture is grim for aboriginal Canadians. A quick scan of any census or report shows that the nearly 1.5 million Indian, Inuit and Métis Canadians fare far less well than all others in terms of longevity, health, education and prison incarceration.

Time, some vast and today unfathomable sweep of time, may eventually heal the wounds in the people, families and communities left by Canada’s treatment of its first peoples; of even the theft, abuse and murder of generations of children.

For now, on the first day of summer each year, Canada celebrates National Aboriginal Day.

It’s something.

Copyright Deborah Jones 2016

Contact: djones AT factsandopinions.com (including for reprint inquiries.)

Further information:

Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future, Summary of the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (summary)

The Missing Women Commission of Inquiry, British Columbia, commissioner Wally Oppal, 2012

Canada’s First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples from Earliest Times (2008), by Olive Dickason and David T. McNab

A Fair Country: Telling Truths About Canada (2008), by John Ralston Saul

Related stories from our archives:

Canadian Court Expands Aboriginal Rights. By Deborah Jones (2014)

Canada’s top court greatly expanded aboriginal rights in Canada’s westernmost province, in what may stand as a landmark decision affecting control of a vast swath of land and resources, in British Columbia and beyond. The case, Tsilhqot’in Nation v. British Columbia, was sparked in 1983 when the provincial government licenced a commercial company to log the Chilcotin. The licence was disputed by the Chilcotin residents who lived there long before the mid 1800s when — without their consent — England claimed the land as a colony, and named it British Columbia.

The Case of the Serial Killings: Gruesome details in Pickton pig farmer trial. By Deborah Jones. (2007)

Wedged between white-capped mountains and sparkling blue ocean, Vancouver is lauded for multicultural livability, ranked worldwide as a top travel destination and is preparing to host the 2010 Winter Olympics. But lately a grim pall has blanketed the western Canadian city of 2.2 million, for reasons far worse than the freak winter storms. The harrowing details of a grotesque serial killer case are bringing to the surface the city’s seamy underworld, usually confined to the squalid 10-block open drug and sex market known as the Downtown Eastside. The seaminess surrounds the trial of pig farmer Robert William Pickton, charged with murdering 26 drug-addicted prostitutes.

~~~

DebJones in Spain

Deborah Jones is a founder and the managing partner, editorial, of Facts and Opinions. Her bio is here. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

~~~

Facts and Opinions is a boutique journal, of reporting and analysis in words and images, without borders. Independent, non-partisan and employee-owned, F&O is funded by you, our readers. We are ad-free and spam-free, and we do not solicit donations from partisan organizations. Please visit our Subscribe page to chip in at least .27 for one story or $1 for a day site pass. Please tell others about us, and follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

Posted in Also tagged , , |

Squibs, by Deborah Jones

172355_10150096394212308_5099694_o

Deborah Jones (In Pocitelj, Bosnia and Herzegovina/Gavin Kennedy photo © 2011)

Squib |skwib|

  1. a small firework that burns with a hissing sound before exploding
  2. a short piece of satirical writing
  3. a short news item or filler

Make of these what your will, and take your pick of the definitions. (I prefer the first.)

 

Squib: Bloomsday — June 16, 2016

I would like to love Ulysses. I don’t. Perhaps James Joyce was just playing a big joke on us?

Squib: “My” Queen — June 11, 2016

Some thoughts on the military parade and occasion of the 90th Official Birthday, which of course is not the same thing as the actual  90th birthday April 26, of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, etc, etc., etc.

Squib: Balkanization and the Radovan Karadžić verdict – March 24, 2106

Rebuilding the physical structures might be the least challenging remedy to the conflict in the former Yugoslavia. Fixing  people is harder.

 

Squib: Out of Time: Daylight (Saving) Delusions March 13, 2016

Since we insist on legislating daylight, it’s long past time that we did something about the weather.

Posted in

“Cause marketing” not clear as a bell

DEBORAH JONES: FREE RANGE
February 6, 2016

I just donated a few dollars to my local schizophrenia support charity. I should do so more often, knowing that we’re all, directly or indirectly, affected by mental illnesses. I don’t, though. It’s one of too many issues clamouring for scarce attention and funds.

Kudos for the reminder, then, to #bellletstalk, an annual “cause marketing” campaign by Canada’s largest communications company, BCE Inc.  Bell, as it’s known, reminded me of the cause  — but instead of joining its campaign, I gave independently. Why? Because behind its cool hash tag, #bellletstalk is a leading example of a trend we really do need to talk about.

Today is Bell Let’s Talk Day! Every time this post is shared, we’ll donate an additional 5¢ to mental health initiatives in Canada.

#bellletstalk is a leading example of a trend we really do need to talk about. Photo from Bell’s Facebook campaign page, which said, “Every time this post is shared, we’ll donate an additional 5¢ to mental health initiatives in Canada. Photo: Facebook

To give due credit, Bell, and the millions of people who participated, did good, raising money and awareness for a cause.

But here’s the caveat, why I refused to join the massively popular campaign despite the risk of being called curmudgeonly: a public issue should not be driven primarily by private interests. Mental illness is too complex, with causes and cures too embedded in our families, workplaces, communities and overall structures, to be fixed with a cause marketing program.

When I grumbled to this effect amid the torrent of posts about the campaign on social media, a friend pointed out that without #bellletstalk few would talk about, or donate, to mental health. He was right. Again, kudos to Bell.

But my friend also noted,  “that’s how the world works.” Ah — and that’s the rub.

I don’t think our world should work that way. I know we can do better.

Bell pledged five cents apiece for messages with the hash tag #bellletstalk. Canadians responded with 125,915,295 tweets, texts and shares on social media. The 24-hour fundraiser, Jan. 27, raised nearly $63 million* for mental health programs throughout Canada.

Mental illness costs Canada alone $51 billion* each year in health care costs, lost productivity, and reductions in health-related quality of life, estimates the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Ontario. Despite Canada’s universal health care, advocates say mental illness is neglected and underfunded compared to other diseases. Globally, the World Health Organization reports that one in 10 people have a mental health disorder, but just one in every 100 health care workers serve them.

Mental illness is a difficult subject, and a marketing campaign based on it could have backfired, even turned away customers. Instead, each January #bellletstalk gets an entire nation talking, enthusiastically — for weeks! — about mental health. Prime minister Justin Trudeau participated, noting his mother Margaret Trudeau’s famous struggles with bi-polar illness. Celebrities tweeted. Ordinary people poured their hearts onto Bell’s campaign Facebook page, like the man who wrote, “I suffer with depression, anxiety, social anxiety, panic attacks and ocd ….Thank you #Bellletstalk for helping raise awareness.”  The campaign received widespread news coverage, including in other countries.

Arguably, in just one day each year, Bell’s cause marketing campaign does more than any government or non-profit agency to raise awareness of an illness that lurks below our radar, or is swept under our rugs.

My criticism is not aimed at Bell, or the millions of people who shared the hash tag. But #bellletstalk is an example of how we confuse a public good with private interests, and of how — without thought —  we accept “that’s how the world works.”

I am an enthusiastic capitalist in the way I am an ardent democrat: both are the least bad of all the systems we’ve invented (with apologies to Winston Churchill). And, both require oversight. Healthy capitalism requires an awareness by citizens that the legal priority of corporations is to make profits for shareholders. Healthy democracy requires us to acknowledge that no marketing campaign can be equated with altruism, or substituted for public policy.

As generous as it is, the $63-million #bellletstalk campaign is no panacea for Canada’s $50 billion/year mental health burden. Mental illness is complicated, its social and medical roots deep – and they extend into Bell’s own workplace, and into most of our institutions. That point was sharply made by a former Bell Media employee, who wrote on Canadaland her job at Bell “gave me mental health issues and no benefits … I just wish they would send some of that funding and change towards their own people too.”

My criticism of #bellletstalk is in the context of private interests increasingly dominating in our societies. This is hardly news. It’s been thoroughly documented, from Thomas Piketty’s 2013 book Capital in the Twenty-First Century, to Oxfam’s report in January, An Economy for the 1%,” released at the World Economic Forum in Davos. Fewer and fewer people control more and more of our economy, and spend their vast wealth to influence our decisions, not merely on choices we make as consumers about, say, Bell mobile phones, but in our elections  — including for the legislators who regulate the communications and health care industries, in which #bellletstalk has become influential.

American philosopher Michael Sandel  warns that we’ve stumbled, without consciously thinking about it, from having a useful “market economy” to, dangerously, being a “market society,” in which anything and everything is for sale. And #bellletstalk, even as it does some good, exemplifies this market society, by  linking an essential public good with selling things to us as consumers.

Canada, and its #Bellletstalk campaign, are considered leaders in the “cause marketing” genre, noted the business publication Forbes. Cause marketing is useful to business, and it has a place in public discourse. But all marketing is aimed primarily at  “consumers.” Consuming is only part of what citizens do.

I think we citizens are capable of a great deal more than tweeting once a year about a vital area of health care. Citizens in healthy democracies have managed to develop public health and urban planning; invented vaccines and implemented public education; sent spaceships to Mars — and replaced, for a time anyway, the rule of man with the rule of law.

Citizens in a developed country like Canada, with its universal health care system, should support research, treatment and awareness of debilitating, socially-devastating mental illness the same way Canadians provide pre-natal health or vaccinations.

Bell raised nearly $63 million* in 24 hours for a neglected cause. It is a lot of money, even compared to the billions that mental illness costs Canadians. And, Bell’s campaign boosted awareness about mental health.

Bell deserves a pat on the back. At the same time, we should pause to question: Will the programs that rely on Bell continue if the company cancels its campaign in future, or the company is bought by a competitor? Will Bell’s popular marketing campaign affect government decisions on regulating the communications industry?

Even the most  enthusiastic capitalists need to ask if a market society is the model we want to serve public needs. It is now, as my friend said, the way the world works.  It doesn’t have to be so.

Copyright Deborah Jones 2016

Contact: djones AT factsandopinions.com (including for republishing.)

If you value this story, the author would appreciate a contribution of .27 cents, Canadian, to help fund her ongoing work and pay for this site. Click on paypal.me/deborahjones to be taken to Deborah Jones’s personal PayPal page.

Read more columns by Deborah Jones

References:

 

 

DebJones in Spain

Deborah Jones is a partner in Facts and Opinions.

Bio 

 

 

 

 

 

 

~~~

Facts and Opinions is a boutique journal, of reporting and analysis in words and images, without borders. Independent, non-partisan and employee-owned, F&O is ad-free and spam-free, and we do not solicit donations from partisan organizations.

Posted in Also tagged , , |

If slaughterhouses had glass walls …

DEBORAH JONES: FREE RANGE
June, 2015

“If slaughterhouses had glass walls, we would all be vegetarian,” Paul McCartney famously said.

There are no walls in the alleys that served as slaughterhouses in Yulin, China. Yulin celebrated its annual Dog Meat Festival in June, and the world watched as some 10,000 of “man’s best friends” crowded in cages and watched their fellows being dragged out, killed and grilled, then eaten with gusto. (See the Reuters photo essay on F&O’s menu, here.)

Yulin’s annual grotesquerie, held to celebrate the solstice and the onset of summer, is over. Outraged dog lovers the world over can relax with the normal fare that saturates our pop news and social media, of LOL catz and pictures of bacon dishes.

Most of the regular folk and celebrities who expressed outrage, and signed petitions protesting the grisly deaths of several thousand animals in the Dog Meat Festival, will not want to know that the Asia Canine Protection Alliance claims some 25 million dogs are killed and eaten each year, mostly in Asian countries.

This statistic is not at the top of the global mind. Dog meat does not much feature in cook books or on food shows. Perhaps the lack of perspective is because the people who eat those 25 million dogs are more savvy than the hapless Yulin residents, roasted each year by the global publicity. Maybe the masses of regular dog eaters are less exposed to globalized infotainment and social media.  I have yet to see a selfie of someone eating one of those 25 million dogs.

The Alliance is one of the few sources of information about dog meat consumption. Data on livestock by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization do not include dogs. The FAO does, however, provide many details about the other land-based animals that humans are consuming in 2015. The FAO expects this meat consumption to grow by 1.5 per cent each year; the rate is faster in developing countries. It divides these by “commodity:”

  • Bovine meat (74 million tonnes)
  • Ovine meat (30.3 million tonnes)
  • Pig meat (110.2 million tonnes)
  • Poulty meat (100.6 million tonnes)
  • Milk (715 million tonnes)
  • Eggs (70.4 million tonnes)

Units of these commodities dwarf the 25 million dog units. By 2030 global production will reach, estimates the FAO, 1,858 million cattle and buffaloes; 2,309 million sheep and goats; 873 million pigs, and 15,067 million birds.

Few of us, outside the food industry or animal rights and environmentalist circles,  pay attention to this massive production. That’s largely because, in the developed countries where more people have the resources to mount protests, and more time they can use to think and research, people are spared the gory details of the production processes on display in Yulin’s alleys. In the modern developed world people-as-consumers buy our meat neatly pre-processed or, if it’s raw, neatly wrapped in plastic on styrofoam trays with sanitary pads to absorb leaking body fluids.

Also, fewer and fewer of us ever bear witness to the life cycles of the animals whose parts arrive, sanitized and decorated, in our stores and on our plates. Traditional food production — which we called “the family farm” until very recently — has abruptly vanished from most of our communities. Farms and ranches have been replaced with massive centralized food factories, called Intensive Industrial Livestock Production Systems.

Of Intensive Industrial Livestock Production Systems, the FAO noted:

They make use of improved genetic material and sophisticated feeding systems, and require highly skilled technical and business management. They are also dependent on inputs of high-energy and protein-rich feeds and animal health prophylactics, and consume considerable amounts of fossil fuel, both directly and indirectly. The wholesale transfer of these types of production systems has been facilitated by the relative ease and speed with which the required infrastructure and equipment can be operationalized in so called “turnkey” operations. In recent years, industrial livestock production grew at twice the annual rate of the more traditional, mixed farming systems .… Industrial enterprises now account for 74 of the world’s total poultry production, 40 percent of pig meat and 68 percent of eggs.” 

What to make of all this data? There are endless ways to consider the dogs killed for meat in Asia, or the cows, sheep, pigs and birds that live and die in Intensive Industrial Livestock Production Systems world wide. Endless questions arise about how and what to feed billions of humans, and about the impact on the environment and human health of different kinds of foods, from vegetables to beans to steak.

But the questions that most interest me have to do with lines. Where, when, how and why do we draw lines between eating one thing, but not another? Where lie the lines between Yulin’s alleys and the refrigerated aisles of our supermarkets?

The vast majority of us cross these lines daily — not least because those who eschew meat are so few as to be negligible. The data is dubious, but in most countries less than five per cent of citizens are vegetarian (a term for which definitions are also dubious). That rate rises to about 10 % in Italy, 13% in Taiwan, and 40 % in India.

Even if these numbers are off, the vast majority of us eat animals, even as we recoil at Yulin’s Dog Meat Festival. Clearly, most of us recognize lines between taboo and acceptable foods. They’re quite visible and easily seen — but following these lines is risky, because they can lead us into very dark places indeed.

“If we cut up beasts simply because they cannot prevent us and because we are backing our own side in the struggle for existence, it is only logical to cut up imbeciles, criminals, enemies, or capitalists for the same reasons,” C.S. Lewis pointed out. Lewis, of course, is best known as the author of the beloved children’s books whose characters stumble through a wardrobe into the magical world of Narnia. We are less readily charmed by Lewis’s philosophy, because he challenges our own magical thinking in the real world.

Why, indeed, do we love dogs and eat pigs? Why, indeed, do we eat pigs and not imbeciles — or capitalists?! Now there’s a line of thought that the vast, meat-eating majority of us prefer to avoid.

But once a year, when Yulin’s Dog Meat Festival rolls around, we happily draw big, fat lines dividing our world from the universe of the dog eaters. Once a year we enthusiastically hurl outraged invective at them. Then, when the grotesquerie is over, we continue with our regular lives.

My own regular life calls. I have almost had my fill of gazing at the photo gallery of grisly photos of the Dog Meat Festival, which I force myself to witness. I will soon return to dealing with the LOL catz and photos of bacon that pervade my Internet experience.

But first, will you please join me in giving another fleeting thought to McCartney’s quip, about glass walls and slaughterhouses?

I think it evokes, oddly, an old proverb: “Those who live in glass houses should not throw stones.” And following that line, I decide that McCartney was wrong.

If there were glass walls on the Intensive Industrial Livestock Production Systems that produce most of the world’s meat, most of us would not even bother to look. I know this, because we — who throw stones of moral outrage at the people whose grisly practices are exposed in Yulin’s alleys — have not even noticed that we live behind glass walls.

Copyright Deborah Jones 2015

Contact: djones AT factsandopinions.com

Notes, references and further reading: 

1. Sir Paul McCartney ‘If Slaughterhouses Had Glass Walls. ‘YouTube video (Content Warning): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QFomoIUaZ-k

2. Asia Canine Protection Alliance: http://www.acpagroup.org

3 World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030. An FAO perspective… http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4252e/y4252e07.htm

3. Vegetarianism by country, Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegetarianism_by_country

4. C.S. Lewis, God in the Dock: Essays on Theology and Ethics, various publishers.  (https://docs.google.com/document/d/140WOWfv09wYxWYOHrGwj3Po27Y3G4UZTZVfgdDSVpqM/edit: https://docs.google.com/document/d/140WOWfv09wYxWYOHrGwj3Po27Y3G4UZTZVfgdDSVpqM/edit

Animal Liberation, by Peter Singer, Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2009

Related reading on F&O:

China’s dog meat festival, Reuters, June, 2015

No monkeying around: animal’s rights, Alasdair Cochrane, October, 2014

 

 

DebJones in Spain

Deborah Jones is a founder and the managing partner, editorial, of Facts and Opinions. She  reported for more than 30 years on breaking news, social and economic policy, science, and whimsey, mostly for Agence France-Presse, Canada’s Globe and Mail, and Time Magazine. She freelanced for a range of publications from the New York Times to medical journals, and held staff positions as a Canadian Press desker and on the Vancouver Sun editorial board. Her education includes an early focus on biology, economics, and political science, with a mid-career Master of Arts in Liberal Studies from Simon Fraser University and post-graduate Creative Writing at the University of Oxford. Interests include civility, freedom of thought and expression, and ecology.

Jones’s family was displaced from Europe by World War II and relocated in Alberta and the Northwest Territories, where Jones grew up skiing, horseback riding, canoeing, and reading books. Prior to journalism she worked as a first aid attendant on bush planes, assistant museum curator, slinging beer in pubs, and as a junior park naturalist. When not traveling Jones is based in Vancouver, Canada.

 

 

~~~

Facts and Opinions is an online journal of select and first-rate reporting and analysis, in words and images: a boutique for select journalism, without borders. Independent, non-partisan and employee-owned, F&O performs journalism for citizens, funded entirely by readers. We do not carry advertising or solicit donations from foundations or causes. Help sustain us with a donation (below), by telling others about us, or purchasing a $1 day pass or subscription, from $2.95/month to $19.95/year. To receive F&O’s free blog emails fill in the form on the FRONTLINES page. 

 

Posted in Also tagged , , , |

Focus on Remembrance

poppies-8

LONDON — Poppies spill out of the Tower of London in the installation Blood Swept Lands and Seas of Red, officially opened August 5. The project, by British ceramic artist Paul Cummins and stage designer Tom Piper, will fill the tower’s dry moat with 888,246 ceramic poppies, each representing a British or Colonial military fatality during WWI. The last poppy will symbolically be planted 11 November 2014. (Photo handout)

On November 11, 1918, the guns of World War I fell silent on the Western Front. The end of the Great War was, so many participants swore, surely  the end of all wars. It was, of course, hubris; less than a generation later most of the world launched itself into World War II. But November 11 has become the day, in much of the world, to remember. In these pages you’ll find some Facts and Opinions about a day known by many names. Whether Remembrance Day, Veteran’s Day, Armistice Day, or Independence Day, it’s a day to pay homage to those who fought and died and suffered in warfare.

‘JACK’ and ELEANOR NASH: Hastily wed, quickly separated in 1914.

The Nicola Valley Museum caption for this photo is "Soldiers lined up on track, Merritt. 1st contingent BC Horse — leaving for Valcartier Que." The date is probably Aug. 15 1914, the first of three days of departures from the valley by members of the militia regiment and volunteers. "Pathetic Scenes at Local Depot," reads the Aug. 21 Merritt Herald headline atop the weekly newspaper’s story on the departures.

Canadian soldiers in  Merritt. British Columbia, ready to leave for the trenches of WW I.

By Michael Sasges

In the spring I “knew” fewer small stories about the Great War than big stories. Barbara Tuchman’s Guns of August was probably the biggest because the first I knew; Margaret MacMillan’s Paris 1919, probably the best remembered because the latest I read. The deaths, in 1917 in France, of two men from “my” street was probably the smallest, and only, Great War story I knew. In the fall, at this Canadian Remembrance Day, I now know that the cenotaph which memorializes Alexander Hogg and David Hogg is short at least one name, Tommy Charters, and the “roll of honour” hanging in one of the local churches is short many names. I also know the man whose name tops one of the cenotaph’s faces was a middle-aged bachelor who got married on his way to the Great War. … read more

Why I prefer to remember Remembrance Day

By Tom Regan

We don’t have much of a tradition of military service in my family, but what we do have is meaningful. One of my uncles fought in the Second World War for Canada and saw some pretty serious action. My father-in-law, an American, was a lifetime aviator, and flew for the US Air Force in World War II, Korea, and Vietnam. So I’ve always considered November 11th an important day to observe.  But when it comes to whether I celebrate Canada’s Remembrance Day, or America’s Veterans Day, I almost always prefer the former over the latter. The reason may be a semantic one but it’s an important one. … read more

A philosopher asks: what do we owe the dead?

By Janna Thompson

Remembrance Day is an occasion when people are supposed to remember and honour those who died in their nation’s wars. But why should we believe that this obligation exists? The dead are dead. They can’t be gratified by our remembrance or insulted by a failure to honour them. Those facts do not prevent us from thinking that we have duties to the dead. Most of us believe we ought to remember people who made sacrifices for our sake. Most of us believe we ought to keep promises made to the dead, to protect their reputations from malicious lies and to fulfil their bequests.  … read more

Body counts disguise true horror of what wars do to bodies. 

By Tom Gregory

Every year on Remembrance Day, we pause to look back on old wars and recount the tallies of the dead, including 16 million killed in the first world war and 60 million in the second world war. And every day, news reports use body counts to highlight the human costs of war: from Syria, where the United Nations has estimated more than 191,000 people have been killed up to April this year, to Ukraine, where the latest estimates are of at least 3,724 people killed (including 298 on Flight MH17). But simply counting the bodies of those killed in war may not actually help us understand the death and destruction caused by war. Instead, my worry is that they end up erasing the violence inflicted on each of the bodies of those affected by war, and numbing our emotional responses to the deaths of others. … … read more

 

Private Milton E. Wallen of Company C, 1st Kentucky Cavalry, wounded by a Minié ball while in prison at Richmond, July 4, 1863. He was being treated for gangrene in August 1863 when Edward Stauch traveled from Washington to make this sketch. Wallen survived the infection and was furloughed from the hospital in October 1863. Image from the U.S. National Museum of Health and Medicine.

Private Milton E. Wallen of Company C, 1st Kentucky Cavalry, wounded by a Minié ball while in prison at Richmond, July 4, 1863. He was being treated for gangrene in August 1863 when Edward Stauch traveled from Washington to make this sketch. Wallen survived the infection and was furloughed from the hospital in October 1863. Image from the U.S. National Museum of Health and Medicine. 

Images from Canada’s Remembrance Day, 2014

By Greg Locke and Deborah Jones

In case you missed these:

World and War

By Deborah Jones

Every person who fought in World War I is now dead – and yet no one alive today is unaffected. The war consumed much of the globe for, arguably, decades. Many contend that the unresolved conflicts of the “Great War” re-ignited to become the conflagration we call World War II, then set in motion events from the Cold War to today’s Middle Eastern conflicts. A century after it began, I am most astonished at the hubris. 

Far from Flanders Fields

By Deborah Jones

It’s at Ypres that my imagination falters, along with my tenuous grasp of poet John McCrae’s identity, and interest in the tiresome debate over the merits and meanings of his poem In Flanders Fields. It’s because of Ypres I am unable to imagine a man with the sensitivity of a poet and the intelligence of a physician harbouring “romantic” notions of war in the conditions of 1915 trench warfare.

Photo by Greg Locke, Copyright 2013

Photo by Greg Locke, Copyright 2013

The Decline in Global Violence

By Andrew Mack

Has the long-term threat of violence — war, terrorism, and homicide —  been decreasing or increasing worldwide? For some, the answer seems clear. Many in the strategic community concur with General Martin Dempsey, Chairman of the United States Joint Chiefs of Staff, who has said today’s world is “more dangerous than it has ever been.”  But there is little evidence to support them. During 2012, the number of conflicts being waged around the world dropped sharply, from 37 to 32. High – intensity conflicts have declined by more than half since the end of the Cold War, while terrorism, military coup and genocide numbers are also down. And this is not a recent phenomenon. According to Harvard University’s Steven Pinker, violence of all kinds has been declining for thousands of years; he has argued “we may be living in the most peaceful era in our species’ existence.” In the 2013 Human Security Report The Decline in Global Violence: Evidence Explanation and Contestation — excerpted here — global security specialist Andrew Mack analyses the evidence.

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 11 in Poland is Independence Day. Poland regained independence in 1918, after 123 years of partitions by Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. Its status was fleeting: after WW II it became the People's Republic, controlled by the USSR. Since the Iron Curtain fell in 1989, Poland has again celebrated its independence every November 11. Photo of 2009 parade by Magic Madzik via Flickr, Creative Commons

In Poland, November 11 is Independence Day. Poland regained independence in 1918, after 123 years of partitions by Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. Its status was fleeting: after WW II it became the People’s Republic, controlled by the USSR. Since the Iron Curtain fell in 1989, Poland has again celebrated independence. Above, celebrants parade in 2009. Photo by Magic Madzik via Flickr, Creative Commons

 

If you appreciate our work, please help sustain us. Facts and Opinions is a boutique for slow journalism, without borders. Independent, non-partisan and employee-owned, F&O is supported entirely by readers: we do not carry advertising or solicit donations from foundations or causes.  Why? We appreciate your interest and support:  for $2.95 (the price of a cheap brew) you can subscribe to F&O for a month. If that breaks your budget, a one-day pass is $1. A subscription is required for most F&O original work. Subscribe for free to Frontlines by entering your address in the form on the right (we won’t share your address), or follow us on Facebook or Twitter.

Posted in Current Affairs, Gyroscope Also tagged , , , , |

Ruling Alters Canada’s Balance of Native Rights

Cattle drive on the Chilcotin Highway, British Columbia. Photo Deborah Jones © 2012

Cattle drive on the Chilcotin Highway, British Columbia. Photo Deborah Jones © 2012

Canada’s top court greatly expanded aboriginal rights in Canada’s westernmost province, in what may stand as a landmark decision affecting control of a vast swath of land and resources, in British Columbia and beyond.

The case, Tsilhqot’in Nation v. British Columbia, was sparked in 1983 when the provincial government licenced a commercial company to log the Chilcotin. The licence was disputed by the Chilcotin residents who lived there long before the mid 2800s when — without their consent — England claimed the land as a colony, and named it British Columbia.

Today the Supreme Court of Canada granted a historic “declaration of Aboriginal title,” and ruled the province of British Columbia had breached its duty to consult with the Tsilhqot’in Nation on the licence.

The ruling matters greatly because the logging dispute is just one of a myriad of specific complaints embedded in hundreds of historic, sweeping and unresolved aboriginal claims that cover almost the entire province. Today’s decision will have an impact on each and every one of them …. read more (this Dispatch, in Justice, is free of charge):

Canadian Court Expands Aboriginal Rights 

 

Facts and Opinions is a boutique for slow journalism, without borders. Independent, non-partisan and employee-owned, F&O performs journalism for citizens, sustained entirely by readers: we do not carry advertising or solicit donations from foundations or causes.  Why? If you’d like to support our journalism, for $2.95 (the price of a cheap brew) you can subscribe to F&O for a month. If that breaks your budget, a one-day pass is $1.) 

Posted in Current Affairs, Gyroscope Also tagged , , , , |

Canadian Court Expands Aboriginal Rights

By Deborah Jones
June 26, 2014

Canada’s top court greatly expanded aboriginal rights in Canada’s westernmost province, in what may stand as a landmark decision affecting control of a vast swath of land and resources, in British Columbia and beyond.

The case, Tsilhqot’in Nation v. British Columbia, was sparked in 1983 when the provincial government licenced a commercial company to log the Chilcotin. The licence was disputed by the Chilcotin residents who lived there long before the mid 1800’s when — without their consent — England claimed the land as a colony, and named it British Columbia.

Cattle drive on the Chilcotin Highway, British Columbia. Photo Deborah Jones © 2012

Cattle drive on the Chilcotin Highway, British Columbia. Photo Deborah Jones © 2012

Today the Supreme Court of Canada granted a historic “declaration of Aboriginal title,” and ruled the province of British Columbia had breached its duty to consult with the Tsilhqot’in Nation on the licence.

The ruling matters greatly because the logging dispute is just one of a myriad of specific complaints embedded in hundreds of historic, sweeping and unresolved aboriginal claims that cover almost the entire province. Today’s decision will have an impact on each and every one of them.

British Columbia is a land of lush coastal rain forests rising eastward to towering mountain ranges interspersed with forested valleys and grassland plateaus. Its 944,735 square kilometres are now home to some 4.6 million people whose origins span the globe. The last reliable federal census, in 2006, estimated the province’s remaining aboriginal population at 196,075

Disputes between aboriginals, governments and corporations are constant, and currently waged over mines, oil and gas development, pipelines including proposals by Enbridge and Kinder Morgan to pipe bitumen from the Alberta oil sands to the west coast, and fishing, forestry, and agriculture operations.

Today’s court ruling ends a gruelling and lengthy legal saga that began when Tsilhqot’in member Roger William challenged the logging licence on behalf of the Xeni Gwet’in and Tsilhqot’in First Nations.

Northwest-relief_ChilcotinPlateau

Chilcotin Plateau (Public domain via Wikimedia)

The Tsilhqot’in are famous for the so-called Chilcotin War, in which aboriginals killed workers building a road through their territory in 1864. In 1983 they issued a declaration of sovereignty. They were never going to accept commercial logging on their territory without a fight.

The battle was soon joined by the federal and other provincial governments, business and industry groups, interest groups, other aboriginal organizations and even Amnesty International.

It wound its way through provincial courts and conflicting rulings for decades. For the Supreme Court dénouement last fall William led band members on a cross-Canada tour to the court hearing in Ottawa.

Today’s Supreme Court’s decision overruled a British Columbia Court of Appeal decision that, in effect, restricted aboriginal title to small specific zones.

Said the country’s top court: “Occupation sufficient to ground Aboriginal title is not confined to specific sites of settlement but extends to tracts of land that were regularly used for hunting, fishing or otherwise exploiting resources and over which the group exercised effective control at the time of assertion of European sovereignty.”

Advocates of aboriginal title immediately claimed the ruling will have an impact on Canadian territory far beyond British Columbia.

“This is a win not only for First Nations across Canada, it’s a win for the province and the country,” Roger William told iPolitics.

“This is the first time a declaration of Aboriginal title has ever been granted by a Canadian court,” noted the national Assembly of First Nations in a statement. “This is truly a landmark decision that compels us all to embark on a new course,” the statement quoted assembly spokesperson Ghislain Picard. “The court has clearly sent a message that (governments) must take Aboriginal title seriously and reconcile with First Nations honourably.  This decision will no doubt go down in history as one of the most important and far reaching ever rendered by the Supreme Court of Canada.” 

The provincial government reacted with caution to the loss and said it would take time to analyse the ruling. Attorney General Suzanne Anton told a morning press conference in Vancouver the ruling provides clarity, and added, “we believe it will be very helpful.” She noted the court case was lengthy, and stressed the province’s desire to negotiate rather than fight via lawyers. “We all know the success that come when we choose to negotiate rather than litigate. When that happens we all win.”

The federal government released a statement that also said it would take time to review “complex and significant legal issues.” It quoted Bernard Valcourt, Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development: “the best way to resolve outstanding Aboriginal rights and title claims is through negotiated settlements that balance the interests of all Canadians.” 

Today’s ruling altered and refined the raw balance of competing rights on which Canada was founded, and teeters.

At the very least, it gives aboriginal groups a much stronger hand: it may not preclude governments from infringing on First Nations, but it clearly requires them to honour duties owed aboriginals under section 35 of Canada’s 1982 Constitution Act. The province’s logging licence granted in the Chilcotin, said the court, was “inconsistent with its duties owed to the Tsilhqot’in people.”

 Copyright Deborah Jones 2014

Contact: Editor@factsandopinions.com

~~~

Excerpts of Supreme Court of Canada’s unanimous decision, written by Chief Justice Beverly McLachlin:

What is the test for Aboriginal title to land?  If title is established, what rights does it confer? Does the British Columbia Forest Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 157, apply to land covered by Aboriginal title?  What are the constitutional constraints on provincial regulation of land under Aboriginal title?  Finally, how are broader public interests to be reconciled with the rights conferred by Aboriginal title?  These are among the important questions raised by this appeal.

These reasons conclude:

  • Aboriginal title flows from occupation in the sense of regular and exclusive use of land.
  • In this case, Aboriginal title is established over the area designated by the trial judge. 
  • Aboriginal title confers the right to use and control the land and to reap the benefits flowing from it.
  • Where title is asserted, but has not yet been established, s. 35  of the Constitution Act, 1982 requires the Crown to consult with the group asserting title and, if appropriate, accommodate its interests.
  • Once Aboriginal title is established, s. 35  of the Constitution Act, 1982  permits incursions on it only with the consent of the Aboriginal group or if they are justified by a compelling and substantial public purpose and are not inconsistent with the Crown’s fiduciary duty to the Aboriginal group; for purposes of determining the validity of provincial legislative incursions on lands held under Aboriginal title, this framework displaces the doctrine of interjurisdictional immunity.
  • In this case, the Province’s land use planning and forestry authorizations were inconsistent with its duties owed to the Tsilhqot’in people.

~~~

“For centuries the Tsilhqot’in Nation, a semi-nomadic grouping of six bands sharing common culture and history, have lived in a remote valley bounded by rivers and mountains in central British Columbia.  It is one of hundreds of indigenous groups in B.C. with unresolved land claims. In 1983, B.C. granted a commercial logging licence on land considered by the Tsilhqot’in to be part of their traditional territory.  The band objected and sought a declaration prohibiting commercial logging on the land.  Talks with the province reached an impasse and the original land claim was amended to include a claim for Aboriginal title to the land at issue on behalf of all Tsilhqot’in people.  The federal and provincial governments opposed the title claim.” 

~~~

“The task is to identify how pre-sovereignty rights and interests can properly find expression in modern common law terms.  Aboriginal title flows from occupation in the sense of regular and exclusive use of land.  To ground Aboriginal title “occupation” must be sufficient, continuous (where present occupation is relied on) and exclusive.  In determining what constitutes sufficient occupation, which lies at the heart of this appeal, one looks to the Aboriginal culture and practices, and compares them in a culturally sensitive way with what was required at common law to establish title on the basis of occupation.  Occupation sufficient to ground Aboriginal title is not confined to specific sites of settlement but extends to tracts of land that were regularly used for hunting, fishing or otherwise exploiting resources and over which the group exercised effective control at the time of assertion of European sovereignty.”

 ~~~

“Aboriginal rights are a limit on both federal and provincial jurisdiction.  The problem in cases such as this is not competing provincial and federal power, but rather tension between the right of the Aboriginal title holders to use their land as they choose and the province which seeks to regulate it, like all other land in the province.  Interjurisdictional immunity — premised on a notion that regulatory environments can be divided into watertight jurisdictional compartments — is often at odds with modern reality.  Increasingly, as our society becomes more complex, effective regulation requires cooperation between interlocking federal and provincial schemes.  Interjurisdictional immunity may thwart such productive cooperation.”

~~~ 

In the result, provincial regulation of general application, including the Forest Act, will apply to exercises of Aboriginal rights such as Aboriginal title land, subject to the (Canadian Constitution)  s. 35  infringement and justification framework.  This carefully calibrated test attempts to reconcile general legislation with Aboriginal rights in a sensitive way as required by s. 35  of the Constitution Act, 1982  and is fairer and more practical from a policy perspective than the blanket inapplicability imposed by the doctrine of interjurisdictional immunity.  The result is a balance that preserves the Aboriginal right while permitting effective regulation of forests by the province.  In this case, however, the Province’s land use planning and forestry authorizations under the Forest Act were inconsistent with its duties owed to the Tsilhqot’in people.

  

Who was involved in the case?

The main parties are:

Roger William, on his own behalf, on behalf of all other members of the Xeni Gwet’in First NationsGovernment and on behalf of all other members of the Tsilhqot’in Nation

Appellant

and

Her Majesty The Queen in Right of the Province of British Columbia, Regional Manager of the Cariboo Forest Region and Attorney General of Canada

 

Interveners included:

Attorney General of Quebec, Attorney General of Manitoba, Attorney General for Saskatchewan, Attorney General of Alberta, Te’mexw Treaty Association, Business Council of British Columbia, Council of Forest Industries, Coast Forest Products Association, Mining Association of British Columbia, Association for Mineral Exploration British Columbia, Assembly of First Nations, Gitanyow Hereditary Chiefs of Gwass Hlaam, Gamlaxyeltxw, Malii, Gwinuu, Haizimsque, Watakhayetsxw, Luuxhon and Wii’litswx, on their own behalf and on behalf of all Gitanyow, Hul’qumi’num Treaty Group, Council of the Haida Nation, Office of the Wet’suwet’en Chiefs, Indigenous Bar Association in Canada, First  Nations Summit, Tsawout First Nation, Tsartlip FirstNation, Snuneymuxw First Nation, Kwakiutl First Nation, Coalition of Union of British Columbia Indian Chiefs, Okanagan Nation Alliance, Shuswap Nation Tribal Council and their member communities, Okanagan, Adams Lake, Neskonlith and Splatsin Indian Bands, Amnesty International, Canadian Friends Service Committee, Gitxaala Nation, Chilko Resorts and Community Association and Council of Canadians

Further reading: 

The Supreme Court of Canada ruling is here: http://scc-csc.lexum.com/scc-csc/scc-csc/en/item/14246/index.do?r=AAAAAQAMZmlyc3QgbmF0aW9uAAAAAAE#_Toc391480045  
Section 35 of Canada’s 1982 Constitution Act: http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/const/page-16.html
Tsilhqot’in National Government site: http://www.tsilhqotin.ca 
Declaration of Sovereignty: http://www.tsilhqotin.ca/pdfs/Administration/83DeclarationSovereignty.pdf 
Assembly of First Nations press release: http://www.afn.ca/index.php/en/news-media/latest-news/assembly-of-first-nations-congratulates-tsilhqotin-national-government
British Columbia Statistics, aboriginal population: http://www.bcstats.gov.bc.ca/StatisticsBySubject/AboriginalPeoples/CensusProfiles.aspx
Wikipedia page for the Chilcotin War: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chilcotin_War

 

 

Independent, non-partisan and employee-owned, FactsandOpinions serves, and is funded by, readers. We do not carry advertising or solicit donations from foundations or causes. Our original work in Dispatches, Think and Photo-Essays is available for a $1 site day pass or at a modest subscription price. Use the SUBSCRIBE  form on our free Frontlines blog to receive blog stories and notices of all new work on site.

Posted in Also tagged , , , , |

Iraq on our mind

640px-Military_quotations,_Rhome,_TX_IMG_7065

“Those who do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it” — American/Spanish philosopher George Santayana. Photo: a military plaque at Veterans Memorial Park in Rhome,Texas. (Creative Commons)

Events in Iraq have dominated world affairs this week. Reports and analysis in Facts and Opinions provide context:

 
In The Cold War 2.0, Thoughtlines author Jim McNiven looks at the deep historical and geopolitical picture (subscription required):
For 40 years, one big contest played out in the world. It was a kind of arm-wrestling match between the Soviets and the Americans. I use the word ‘Soviets’ to distinguish one contestant from its successor of sorts: today’s Russians. Eventually, the Soviets could not keep their end of the game going and walked away from the table, into history. The last decade of the century was one where there was but one superpower — and it wanted to party. The attacks on America on September 11, 2001, brought that party to a halt. It signified a new game was beginning; not one of two superpowers engaged while the rest of the world largely stayed out of the way, but one where arm-wrestling was replaced by a kind of hide-and-seek. 
In F&O‘s books section ProPublica journalist Jeff Gerth tries to shed light on at least one American politician who voted for the United States invasion: All the Things Hillary Clinton’s Book Doesn’t Say About Iraq (free story):

Having co-authored a 2007 biography of Hillary Clinton, I know that Iraq is not one of her favorite subjects. But with the bloodshed and sectarian division now crippling Iraq, I wondered what her new memoir, Hard Choices, had to say about a country that’s long been a political minefield for her. The answer is not a lot. There is no chapter on its own for Iraq, like there is for Gaza, or Burma or Haiti.

Natural Security columnist Chris Wood considers the destruction in Iraq in Let Nature’s Geography Trump Westphalian View (subscription required):

Millennia of not-always-wise irrigation, a century of water seizures for national ends, and decades of conflict including that now in Iraq, have not been kind to the once-lush basin of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. “Recovery” might yet be possible, in the unlikely event that environmentalists, who are without a name let alone an army, unify the Levant under a Green banner. But the point we all need to grasp is that the former Mesopotamia is merely a little ahead of the rest of us, on the road to bankrupting our natural security.

International Affairs columnist Jonathan Manthorpe looks at the long-term repercussions of America’s invasion of Iraq, and how it “fouled the west’s moral authority in a world where new centres of cultural, political and military power are rapidly emerging. In Bin Laden’s disciples move to realize his dream he writes(subscription required)

There has never been a satisfactory explanation why George W. Bush and his Praetorian Guard nursed such a visceral hatred of Saddam Hussein. But they came to power in 2000 intent on vendetta, and within hours of the September 2001 al-Qaida attacks on New York and Washington the closest officials and advisers around Bush were looking for a Saddam connection. Within days, senior officers in the Pentagon realized with alarm the administration had already loosed the unstoppable juggernaut that would lead to the invasion of Iraq and removal of Saddam in 2003.

WHAT WE ARE READING ELSEWHERE:
 
Of Iraq’s “house of horrors CBC journalist Brian Stewart asks, “How can one even begin to explain such a fiasco?”  One word comes to mind: Hubris.  It’s been in flagrant display this week. Remarkably, given their record and the various demands they be charged with war crimes, former American president George W. Bush, Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld and crew — who  can make Saddam Hussein seem wise and statesmanlike — still walk and talk amongst us (and, word, do they talk) long after Hussein was sent to the gallows.

What next? The New York Times‘ David Brooks argues that some answers for Iraq can be found in — of all the world’s bizarre benighted places — Rwanda. Post-genocide Rwanda shows “if you get the political elites behaving decently, you can avoid the worst. Grimly, there’s cause for hope.”  Meanwhile, an American Public Policy Polling poll on June 17 suggests that 74 per cent of Americans oppose sending combat troops to Iraq.

— Deborah Jones

Posted in Current Affairs, Gyroscope Also tagged |

The way of wolves

Some 20 years ago gray wolves were re-introduced to Yellowstone Park in the United States. Their impact has been a transformation of an ecosystem, in ways that few scientists had imagined. But even as the animals are celebrated as a “keystone” species their future remains in doubt, and their reputation in some circles is as villainous as ever. Excerpt of a new Free Range column by Deborah Jones, Wolves as Ecosystems Engineers:

graywolfcreditgarykramerusfwsRed Riding Hood and the Three Little Pigs have a lot to answer for: thanks partly to fairy tales, wolves have a ghastly and global reputation as big and bad, terrorists of young girls and small pigs, good for nothing but their pelts. But science offers redemption — and one fair wolf tale can be found in Yellowstone National Park in the western United States. Alas, it’s a tale without an end.

Log in to read Wolves as Ecosystems Engineers*

*F&O original works, including commentary, are available for a $1 site day pass, or by subscription.

Journalism matters. Please support our professional, independent and non-partisan reporting, commentary and photo-journalism.

Posted in All, Gyroscope Also tagged , , , |

Free Range: Thou Shalt Not Kill

The world might want to pay close attention to the new leader of the Catholic church, I suggest in my latest Free Range column.

With his first mission statement, Pope Francis is taking his flock to war – against capitalism as it’s constructed in the 21st Century.

My column, The Pope and capitalism: “Thou Shalt Not Kill,” is here.*

*Log in to read Facts and Opinions commentary, available to subscribers or with a $1 day pass to Facts and Opinions.

 

Posted in All, Current Affairs, Gyroscope Also tagged , , , , |